Category Archives: Flight Training

Instrument Rating

Instrument rating refers to the qualifications that a pilot must have in order to fly under IFR (Instrument Flight Rules). It requires further training and instruction apart from what is required for a Private Pilot certificate or Commercial Pilot certificate, in conjunction with  rules and procedures specific to instrument flying, additional instruction in meteorology and more demanding training in flight  by reference to instruments only. Testing consists of a written exam and a practical test (known more commonly as the check ride). The check ride is divided into an oral component to certify that the applicant understands the theory of instrument flying and an actual flight to ensure the pilot possesses the practical skills Ativan 1mg required for safe IFR flight.

For most private pilots, the most significant value of flying under IFR is the ability to fly in instrument meteorological conditions (such as inside clouds). More so, all flights operating in Class A airspace, defined as all airspace above 18,000 feet, must be conducted under IFR. In the United States, an instrument rating is required when operating under Special visual flight rules (SVFR) at night.

Requirements For an American Instrument Rating under part 61 of the Federal Aviation Regulation

  • 50 hours of Pilot in Command cross country
  • 40 hours of simulated or actual instrument time
  • 15 hours of flight instruction towards Instrument Rating

Private Pilot

Holding your Private Pilot License (PPL) or Private Pilot Certificate as in the U.S, allows you to act as the pilot of an aircraft for private purposes and not for compensation. As with other licenses, the requirements, guidelines and allowed privileges are set by the ICAO. Implementation varies broadly from country to country, but the ICAO states that it is gained by successfully completing a course of flight training of at least 40 duration(45 in the UK), passing a number of theory exams, and notably demonstrating flying skills to an examiner during a flight test or checkride. The average minimum age to obtain a Private Pilot Certificate is 17.


Different types of PPL are issued for the major categories of aircraft: powered airplanes/aeroplanes; gliders; helicopters; gyro planes; balloons; airships. volume pills do they really work


PPL is issued either according to the FAA (American licenses) or JAR (European licenses) regulations. Each organization has different requirements, and one a PPL license issued according by another regulator is only valid after application.


A license will contain a number of sub-qualifications or ratings. These specify in more detail the actual privileges of the license, including the types of aircraft that can be flown, whether flight under Instrument Flight Rules and at night is allowed, and whether instructing and examining of trainee pilots can be done.

In addition, a number of endorsements are available for specific skills (additional requirements apply):

  • Night VFR
  • Instrument Flying (IFR)
  • Multi-Engine
  • Piston/Turbine
  • Design features: Tail wheel, Retractable Undercarriage, Float-Plane, etc.
  • Aerobatics, spins, formation flying, etc.
  • Agricultural, stock-mustering, etc.